PLoS One. 2016 Sep 19;11(9):e0162659. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162659. eCollection 2016.
Yu S1, Ding L1, Luo R1, Li X1, Yang J1, Liu H1, Cong L1, Ran C1.
Dialeurodes citri is a major pest in citrus producing areas, and large-scale outbreaks have occurred increasingly often in recent years. Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important entomopathogenic fungus that can parasitize and kill D. citri. We separated the fungus from corpses of D. citri larvae. However, the sound immune defense system of pests makes infection by an entomopathogenic fungus difficult. Here we used RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq) to build a transcriptome database for D. citri and performed digital gene expression profiling to screen genes that act in the immune defense of D. citri larvae infected with a pathogenic fungus. De novo assembly generated 84,733 unigenes with mean length of 772 nt. All unigenes were searched against GO, Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, and KEGG databases and a total of 28,190 (33.3%) unigenes were annotated. We identified 129 immunity-related unigenes in transcriptome database that were related to pattern recognition receptors, information transduction factors and response factors. From the digital gene expression profile, we identified 441 unigenes that were differentially expressed in D. citri infected with L. attenuatum. Through calculated Log2Ratio values, we identified genes for which fold changes in expression were obvious, including cuticle protein, vitellogenin, cathepsin, prophenoloxidase, clip-domain serine protease, lysozyme, and others. Subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the results. The identified genes may serve as target genes for microbial control of D. citri.
PMID: 27644092 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162659
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Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 19;6:33660. doi: 10.1038/srep33660.
Yaakop AS1, Chan KG2, Ee R2, Lim YL2, Lee SK2, Manan FA1, Goh KM1.
Jeotgalibacillus malaysiensis, a moderate halophilic bacterium isolated from a pelagic area, can endure higher concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) than other Jeotgalibacillus type strains. In this study, we therefore chose to sequence and assemble the entire J. malaysiensis genome. This is the first report to provide a detailed analysis of the genomic features of J. malaysiensis, and to perform genetic comparisons between this microorganism and other halophiles. J. malaysiensis encodes a native megaplasmid (pJeoMA), which is greater than 600 kilobases in size, that is absent from other sequenced species of Jeotgalibacillus. Subsequently, RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis was utilised to examine adaptations of J. malaysiensis to osmotic stress. Specifically, the eggNOG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) databases were used to elucidate the overall effects of osmotic stress on the organism. Generally, saline stress significantly affected carbohydrate, energy, and amino acid metabolism, as well as fatty acid biosynthesis. Our findings also indicate that J. malaysiensis adopted a combination of approaches, including the uptake or synthesis of osmoprotectants, for surviving salt stress. Among these, proline synthesis appeared to be the preferred method for withstanding prolonged osmotic stress in J. malaysiensis.
PMID: 27641516 DOI: 10.1038/srep33660
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J Oral Microbiol. 2016 Sep 16;8:32383. doi: 10.3402/jom.v8.32383. eCollection 2016.
Dame-Teixeira N1, Parolo CC2, Maltz M2, Tugnait A3, Devine D3, Do T4.
The studies of the distribution of Actinomyces spp. on carious and non-carious root surfaces have not been able to confirm the association of these bacteria with root caries, although they were extensively implicated as a prime suspect in root caries.
The aim of this study was to observe the gene expression of Actinomyces spp. in the microbiota of root surfaces with and without caries.
The oral biofilms from exposed sound root surface (SRS; n=10) and active root caries (RC; n=30) samples were collected. The total bacterial RNA was extracted, and the mRNA was isolated. Samples with low RNA concentration were pooled, yielding a final sample size of SRS=10 and RC=9. Complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina(®) HiSeq 2500 system. Sequence reads were mapped to eight Actinomyces genomes. Count data were normalized using DESeq2 to analyse differential gene expression applying the Benjamini-Hochberg correction (false discovery rate [FDR]<0.001).
Actinomyces spp. had similar numbers of reads (Mann-Whitney U-test; p>0.05), except for Actinomyces OT178 (p=0.001) and Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.004), which had higher read counts in the SRS. Genes that code for stress proteins (clp, dnaK, and groEL), enzymes of glycolysis pathways (including enolase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), adhesion (Type-2 fimbrial and collagen-binding protein), and cell growth (EF-Tu) were highly - but not differentially (p>0.001) - expressed in both groups. Genes with the most significant upregulation in RC were those coding for hypothetical proteins and uracil DNA glycosylase (p=2.61E-17). The gene with the most significant upregulation in SRS was a peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein (log2FC=-6.00, FDR=2.37E-05).
There were similar levels of Actinomyces gene expression in both sound and carious root biofilms. These bacteria can be commensal in root surface sites but may be cariogenic due to survival mechanisms that allow them to exist in acid environments and to metabolize sugars, saving energy.
Actinomyces spp.; RNA-seq; differential expression; root caries; transcriptome
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Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2016 Aug 28;20:101-110. doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2016.08.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Manzoor A1, UlAbdin Z2, Webb BA3, Arif MJ1, Jamil A4.
Venom is a key-factor in the regulation of host physiology by parasitic Hymenoptera and a potentially rich source of novel bioactive substances for biotechnological applications. The limited study of venom from the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor, a tiny wasp that attacks larval pest insects of field and stored products and is thus a potential insect control agent, has not described the full complement and composition of these biomolecules. To have a comprehensive picture of genes expressed in the venom glands of B. hebetor, a venom gland transcriptome was assembled by using next generation sequencing technologies followed by de novo assemblies of the 10.81 M sequence reads yielded 22,425 contigs, of which 10,581 had significant BLASTx hits to know genes. The majority of hits were to Diachasma alloeum, an ectoparasitoid from same taxonomic family, as well as other wasps. Gene ontology grouped the sequences into molecular functions in which catalytic activity with 42.2% was maximum, cellular components in which cells with 33.8% and biological processes among which metabolic process with 30% had the most representatives. In this study, we highlight the most abundant sequences, and those that are likely to be functional components of the venom for parasitization. Full length ORFs of Calreticulin, Venom Acid Phosphatase Acph-1 like protein and arginine kinase proteins were isolated and their tissue specific expression was studied by RT-PCR. Our report is the first to characterize components of the B. hebetor venom glands that may be useful for developing control tools for insect pests and other applications.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bracon hebetor; De novo assembly; Illumina technology; Next generation sequencing; RNA-seq; Transcriptome; Venom glands
PMID: 27636656 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbd.2016.08.002
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Genome Biol Evol. 2016 Sep 15. pii: evw229. [Epub ahead of print]
Griffith OW1, Brandley MC2, Belov K3, Thompson MB3.
The evolution of new organs is difficult to study because most vertebrate organs evolved only once, more than 500 million years ago. An ideal model for understanding complex organ evolution is the placenta, a structure that is present in live bearing reptiles and mammals (amniotes), which has evolved independently more than 115 times. Using transcriptomics, we characterised the uterine gene expression patterns through the reproductive cycle of a viviparous skink lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii Then we compare these patterns with the patterns of gene expression from two oviparous skinks Lampropholis guichenoti and Lerista bougainvillii While thousands of genes are differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine tissue in the viviparous skink, few differentially expressed genes were identified between gravid and non-gravid oviparous skinks. This finding suggests that in P. entrecasteauxii, a pregnant specific gene expression profile has evolved, allowing for the evolution of pregnancy specific innovations in the uterus. We find substantial gene expression differences between the uterus of the chorioallantoic and yolk sac placenta in P. entrecasteauxii, suggesting these placental regions are specialized for different placental functions. In particular, the chorioallantoic placenta is likely a major site of nutrient transport by membrane bound transport proteins, whilst the yolk sac placenta also likely transports nutrients but via apocrine secretions. We discuss how the evolution of transcription factor networks are likely to underpin the evolution of the new transcriptional states in the uterine tissue of viviparous reptiles.
© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Pseudemoia; RNA-seq; convergent evolution; lizard; placenta; viviparity